The e3tool software contains several examples of e3value models. In this tutorial, we will use the flat-rate service provision as a running example. A flat rate, also referred to as a flat fee or a linear rate, is a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage (

A simple value model of a flat-rate telephony contract can be found under the “Examples” menu and is also shown in the screenshot below.

Introduction: What is a value model

An e3value model represents how actors exchange value (such as services, products or money) in an ideal world during a period of time called the contract period. For instance, the “flat-rate” example model represents the provision and payment of a fixed-price mobile telephony service during a period of one month. An e3value model assumes that all actors trust each other and all transactions occur as specified. The most important elements are:

  • Actors are profit-loss responsible entities, such as organizations, customers and intermediaries. A Market segment is used to represent a group of similar actors (such as a pool of users). In the “flat-rate” example, “Provider A”, “Provider B”, “User A” and “User B” are actors.
  • Value transfers are transfers of value objects, such as a payment or the delivery of a service. In the flat-rate example, all the lines between two actors are value transfers. Each transfer has an associated valuation, which can be edited via its context menu.
  • Value objects are things of economic value which can be exchanged, such as money, services, products, knowledge or experiences. Value objects can be attached to value transfers via their context menu.
  • Dependency paths are chains of economic transactions. In the flat rate example, there are two dependency paths: one for the subscription and one for the calling. Dependency paths do not represent processes. They merely indicate that in the contract period, a consumer need triggers a certain combination of economic transactions, without saying when or how these transactions are performed.
  • Start stimuli trigger a chain of economic transactions. Each start stimuli has an associated occurrence rate, which can be edited via its context menu. In the flat-rate example, “Purchase” and “Call” are such needs.

Attributes and expressions

Most elements have several attributes accessible via their properties window, which can be opened by right-clicking individual elements. Attributes may take a numerical value (e.g. OCCURRENCES = 2), but can also be defined using MicrosoftExcel expression containing references to other attributes, either local or belonging to other objects in the model. References can be of four types:

  • e3{attributename} -> refers to a attribute of the same object
  • e3{#objectId.attributename} -> refers to an attribute of some other object identified by ID * e3{‘objectName’.attributename} -> refers to an attribute of some other object identified by name
  • e3{ElementType(‘name’).attributename} -> refers to an attribute of some other object identified by type+name


Step 1: Construct a value model

To build a value model,

  1. first drag-and-drop the relevant actors and market segments involved in the networked business model to be analyzed from the palette on the left and name them accordingly;
  2. then, drag-and-drop value interfaces to the edges of the actors and market segments and connect the incoming/outgoing ports of these interfaces to define inter-actor value transfers. Additional ports can be added to each value interface;
  3. add start and end stimuli and connect these to value interfaces using dependency paths. You may also use dependency paths to chain transactions by connecting value interfaces to each other (only inside the same actor).
  4. finally, assign values to the valuation attribute of value transfers (or their individual end-ports if each actor values the object differently) and occurrences attribute of start stimuli.

Step 2: Run analyses

A profitability analysis computes the financial result of every actor in the model.

A sensitivity analysis generates a projection of profitability across a given occurrence range of a selected need or across a range of market segment sizes.

A net value flow analysis generates a spreadsheet detailing the revenues and costs of each actor.

A fraud assessment generates possible fraud scenarios and ranks them based on impact.